Revised on 10 February 2021, 8:45 a.m.
Any substantive changes in this HillNote that have been made since the preceding issue are indicated in bold print.
(Disponible en français : COVID-19, insécurité alimentaire et problèmes connexes)
When the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrived in Canada, Canadians became concerned about disruptions to their food supply. A March 2020 survey by Abacus Data showed that, at that time, almost two-thirds of Canadians were worried about rising food prices (65%) and the availability of certain food products (62%). While there is no evidence that the pandemic has resulted (or will result) in widespread or long-term food shortages in Canada, it has negatively affected food security, caused disruptions to the agri-food supply chain and contributed to higher food prices.
According to a March 2020 report, at least 4.4 million Canadians were food insecure in 2017-18, meaning that they lacked access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food. Food insecurity is strongly linked to people’s financial ability to access food, both in quantity and quality. A recent report notes that “[f]ood insecurity levels are likely to increase across the country in 2021.”
Experts believe that, currently, “skyrocketing unemployment is driving up food insecurity to catastrophic levels.” As people lose their jobs and main sources of income due to closures of non-essential businesses, efforts to control the pandemic may exacerbate existing food security vulnerabilities in Canada. This is particularly concerning since, according to Statistics Canada, the national unemployment rate (9.4%) and the labour market underutilization rate (18.4%) remain relatively high as of January 2021. Data from Statistics Canada also showed that, in the early months of the pandemic, those whose employment had been disrupted by it were “almost three times more likely to be food insecure than those who worked.”
Food banks have been experiencing increased pressure as a result of the pandemic. The national organization Food Banks Canada reported a 20% increase in their use between March and May 2020. On 3 April 2020, the Prime Minister announced that $100 million will be provided to food banks and other organizations to support access to food for people experiencing food insecurity as a result of COVID-19. In an open letter, several academics acknowledged the announcement’s timeliness, but stressed that some communities may lack the capacity to fully take advantage of these funds. They also noted that Indigenous communities, which are already disproportionately affected by food insecurity and malnutrition, may need logistical support to maintain a supply of safe, nutritious and traditional food during the pandemic. Other experts argue that food banks and charity are not the solution to food insecurity.
On 14 April 2020, the Prime Minister also announced additional funding for northern communities, including $25 million for the Nutrition North Canada program.
Food Supply Chain
With border and plant closures related to the pandemic, there is concern that the food supply chain is vulnerable. However, long-term shortages are unlikely given the robustness of Canada’s supply chain. Dr. Evan Fraser, a Canada Research Chair in Global Food Security, agrees that panic is unwarranted. According to Dr. Fraser, however, the pandemic could lead to debates about globalization and the interdependence of global food systems. There could be a push for more locally and regionally-based food production. The COVID-19 pandemic also raises questions about our “just enough, just in time” food system, which minimizes stocks of food so that stores have just enough food, just in time to sell it. Although convenient and cost-efficient, this model is less resilient to shocks or distribution disruptions.
At the international level, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) states that disruptions to food supply chains are minimal so far. The Committee on World Food Security notes in its interim issue paper on COVID-19 that, over the medium and longer terms, disruptions to global supply chains will depend on the duration and severity of the pandemic.
The current situation has also drawn attention to the Canadian agriculture and agri-food sector’s dependence on temporary foreign workers as labourers for both food production and processing. Such workers are exempt from international entry restrictions related to COVID-19, under certain conditions involving self-isolation upon entry.
To support food producers and processors, the federal government announced several measures, including:
- the enhancement of Farm Credit Canada’s lending capacity;
- the Fish Harvester Benefit and Grant;
- a national AgriRecovery initiative;
- the Emergency Processing Fund;
- the Canadian Seafood Stabilization Fund;
- the Surplus Food Purchase Program;
- changes to the AgriStability and AgriInsurance;
- the Mandatory Isolation Support for Temporary Foreign Workers Program; and
- the Emergency On-Farm Support Fund.
Additionally, on 15 May 2020, Bill C-16, An Act to amend the Canadian Dairy Commission Act, received Royal Assent. The bill increases the Canadian Dairy Commission’s borrowing limit from $300 million to $500 million to account for additional costs associated with the temporary storage of dairy products.
In December 2020, researchers at Dalhousie University’s Agri-Food Analytics Lab and the University of Guelph’s Arnell Food Institute released their new food price forecast. They concluded that, in Canada, overall food prices will increase 3 to 5% in 2021 compared to last year. In their report, they note that the pandemic has “caused economic volatility in global markets and presented rapidly changing circumstances and disruptions to which all stages of the agri-food supply chain—from farmgate to retail—must quickly adapt.”
Food safety, which is not to be confused with food security, includes the measures and practices to prevent food from carrying or transmitting foodborne illnesses, contaminants and other hazards. At the time of writing, there is no scientific evidence to support that food is a source or route for the transmission of SARS-CoV2, the virus causing COVID-19. In September 2020, the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods wrote that “SARS-CoV-2 should not be considered a food safety hazard.” According to the federal government, as of January 2021, “[t]here are currently no confirmed cases of COVID-19 or its new variants being spread through food or food packaging.”
During the pandemic, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is maintaining critical services, such as food safety inspections and investigations. The government announced it will provide an additional $20 million to the CFIA to support these services. In May 2020, several CFIA inspectors contracted the disease following outbreaks in meat processing plants.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, COVID-19 – Information for the agriculture and agri-food industry.
Bashar Abu Taleb, Julie Béchard, Madalina Chesoi and Natacha Kramski, “The Movement of Goods and People In and Out of Canada in a COVID-19 World,” Library of Parliament, 3 April 2020.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Coronavirus (COVID-19): information for consumers about food safety and animal health.
Elisa Levi and Tabitha Robin, “COVID-19 Did Not Cause Food Insecurity In Indigenous Communities But It Will Make It Worse,” Yellowhead Institute, 29 April 2020.
Food Banks Canada, Find a Food Bank.
Natacha Kramski, “Legislative Summary of Bill C-16: An Act to amend the Canadian Dairy Commission Act,” Library of Parliament, 27 May 2020.
Author: Olivier Leblanc-Laurendeau, Library of Parliament