Surveillance cameras. Image: Thinkstock.com

The Counter-Terrorism Framework in Canada

(Disponible en français : Cadre de lutte antiterroriste du Canada) Canada is not immune to terrorism. According to Global Affairs Canada, a number of international and domestic terrorist groups are present in Canada. Some are engaged in terrorist activity here, while others are active beyond our border. Canada has a number of tools that respond…

a judge's gavel and the Canadian flag in the background

Sentencing and the Administration of Sentences: Recent Developments (2011-2015)

(Disponible en français : La détermination et l’administration des peines au Canada : évolution récente (2011-2015)) Sentencing tools were much in the spotlight as the Canadian Government continued to promote law-and-order legislation during the 41st Parliament. New mandatory minimum sentences were among reforms to the sentencing regime introduced during the past four years. Other reforms…

Imagery of a cyber lock and password. Thinkstock.com

Computer Privacy and Security: Lawful and Unlawful Access

(Disponible en français : Confidentialité et sécurité informatique : accès légal ou illégal) Canadians increasingly store or access personal information on their computers and mobile devices, much of which can be accessed by others, whether lawfully or not. Cybercrime, or computer crime, is also increasing. As technology advances, cybercriminals are using more sophisticated methods that make…

Supreme Court of Canada

Are you Ready to Legislate?

(Disponible en français : Vous sentez-vous prêts à légiférer?) Government legislation often overshadows the important role played by individual members of Parliament and senators in proposing laws. Since 1910, 278 bills sponsored by MPs and senators have been passed by Parliament, 43 in the 41st Parliament alone. Of the 43 receiving royal assent, some designated…

Picture of the Canadian mosaic

International Context for Refugee Protection

(Disponible en français : Le contexte international de la protection des réfugiés) More people than ever before have been displaced from their homes around the world as a result of persecution, conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has reported that, by the end of 2014, this…

Supreme Court of Canada Building

Parliament and the Courts: Balancing the Roles

(Disponible en français : Le Parlement et les tribunaux : l’équilibre des rôles) The role of judges and the courts in the evolution of Canadian law must be examined in the Canadian federal and constitutional context. It is closely linked to the role of Parliament and the provincial legislative assemblies (legislative branch). The judicial branch…

Supreme Court of Canada Building

The Role of the Supreme Court of Canada – Membership and the Nomination Process

(Disponible en français : Le rôle de la Cour suprême du Canada – composition et procédure de nomination) The Supreme Court of Canada was created by Statute in 1875 and since that time its membership and nomination process have evolved considerably. The Court acts as a general court of appeal for Canada, deriving its authority…

Monument to aboriginal war veterans in Confederation Park, Ottawa, Canada

Indigenous Peoples: Terminology and Identity

(Disponible en français : Peuples autochtones : terminologie et identité) For centuries, the original inhabitants of North America have been largely defined by others, beginning with the misapplication of the term Indian by Christopher Columbus to describe the various peoples of the Americas. Today, as attitudes toward the first peoples of Canada change and evolve,…