Visuals: Information and communications

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Search and Seizure Powers

The title of the table is: search and seizure powers. The table is divided into two columns. The left-hand column is entitled: reasonable expectation of privacy (warrant). This column contains nine rows whose text is written in superimposition on the image of a judge's robe in red and black. These nine rows contain the following text: Text messages saved in another person’s device. Electronic interception of private communication between a suspect and police. Bag on passenger seat during random roadside check. Buccal swabs, hair samples and teeth impressions. Visual, olfactory and aural observations made by police officers around a suspect’s home. Locker at a bus depot. Tissue discarded in a wastebasket by a suspect detained in a police station. Employer-issued laptop computer. Name and address of a subscriber in the computerized records of an Internet service provider. The right-hand column is entitled: no reasonable expectation of privacy (no warrant). This column contains nine rows with text superimposed on the image of a police officer seen from behind wearing a blue uniform with the word "police" written on it. These nine rows contain the following text: Search of a cellular phone during an arrest. Facebook communications between an adult and a fictitious child created by police. Vehicle passenger with tenuous link to the vehicle owner. Penile swabs taken during an arrest. Heat radiating from a private residence recorded by an infrared camera. Search with a sniffer dog based on reasonable suspicion. Household waste placed at the edge of a property for collection. Apartment of an accused’s girlfriend to which the accused has a key. Computerized records and electricity consumption patterns.

Read the HillNote: The Right to Be Left Alone and Police Powers in Canada: Is an Update Needed? (2020)


Surveillance Systems

The infographic depicts surveillance cameras in a public setting and shows that surveillance systems can track individuals, as well as categorize them based on clothing, gender, race, age and actions. It shows surveillance cameras identifying individuals through facial recognition and by their gait. It also depicts cameras detecting people loitering and entering forbidden areas.

Read the HillNote: Taming State Surveillance: Reconciling Camera Surveillance Technology with Human Rights Obligations (2020)


Examples of 5G Technology Applications

Figure 1 shows examples of 5G technology being applied in people’s daily lives. Here we see a person shopping online from home using virtual reality; a farm with a connected tractor and where land irrigation is facilitated by ground sensors that send signals to a smartphone; smart traffic lights; a connected vehicle; a connected home where several functions can be managed from a smartphone, including lighting, heating/cooling and locks; an ambulance connected to the hospital to allow emergency treatment to begin even before arrival; and a bank that allows customers to conduct transactions remotely with their mobile devices.

Read the HillNote: 5G Technology: Opportunities, Challenges and Risks (2020)


Examples of Nations Whose Intelligence Agencies Have Arti­ficial Intelligence (AI)–Enabled Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT) Capabilities

Each country in the Five Eyes intelligence alliance – Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand – has artificial intelligence (AI)–enabled open-source intelligence (OSINT) capabilities. Examples of countries that have AI-enabled OSINT capabilities and cooperative relations with the Five Eyes intelligence alliance include France, Israel, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Japan. Russia and China have longstanding OSINT programs. Their implication in recent large-scale database breaches in the United States and elsewhere suggests these two countries’ intelligence services have AI capabilities.

Read the HillNote: The Growing Importance of Open-Source Intelligence to National Security (2022)


Typical Distribution of Frequency Bands

Different spectrum frequency bands are used depending on geography and population density. Low-frequency bands, such as those in the 600 MHz range, are ideal for covering large geographic areas and penetrating buildings, which makes it important in rural and urban areas. Medium-frequency bands provide both coverage and capacity. The medium-frequency 3800 MHz band is commonly used in rural regions in Canada. High-frequency bands, such as those in the 24 GHz range, are often used in major cities, as they have limited coverage but high data transfer capacity.

Spectrum Allocation Process in Canada

The spectrum allocation process has a number of steps in Canada: 1) The first step is public consultations, which takes six to nine months. At this step, the federal government is seeking to understand stakeholder needs for spectrum licences and to set the auction parameters, including the size of spectrum blocks to be allocated and the service area tiers. 2) The second step in the process is the public auctions, which take somewhere between a few days and a few weeks. During the auction, applicants can bid on multiple licences. It uses a live electronic bidding system, with multiple simultaneous auctions in a series of rounds. The results of each round are announced before the start of the next round. 3) The third step in the process is that winners must pay in full for the licences they obtained. Buyers may share the licences they obtained if the licence conditions are met.

Read the HillNote: Understanding Spectrum Management in Canada (2021)

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