Executive Summary

Executive Summary – Official Languages or National Languages? Canada’s Decision

Reading Time: < 1 minute Disponible en français. In 2013–2014 and again since June 2020, some Canadian political figures have used the terms “national languages” and “official languages” interchangeably to refer to English and French when discussing the federal language regime. However, these two terms are not equivalent. “Official” status requires the government to… Read More ›

Executive Summary – Refugee Protection in Canada

Reading Time: < 1 minute Disponible en français. Refugees are people who flee their country because it is unsafe. Most refugees seek protection in a country neighbouring their own. Others make their way to countries like Canada and seek protection once they have arrived. This paper describes the steps to obtain protection when a person is already in Canada. International law and Canadian… Read More ›

Executive Summary – Understanding Federal Jurisdiction and First Nations

Reading Time: < 1 minute Disponible en français. Under section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867, the federal government has exclusive legislative authority for “Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians.” This responsibility, however, often overlaps with that of the provinces, whose authority extends to areas such as child welfare, education and policing. While “Indians” means all Indigenous peoples for the purpose of section 91(24),… Read More ›

Executive Summary – The Arctic: Environmental Issues

Reading Time: < 1 minute Disponible en français. Climate change, changes in biological diversity, and the accumulation of toxic substances are three main interrelated issues affecting the rapidly shifting Arctic environment. While these issues, with climate change as a dominant driver, are largely the result of human activities in distant southern regions, they have serious cultural, socio‑economic and health impacts on residents… Read More ›