Executive Summary

Executive Summary – Understanding Federal Jurisdiction and First Nations

Reading Time: < 1 minute Disponible en français. Under section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867, the federal government has exclusive legislative authority for “Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians.” This responsibility, however, often overlaps with that of the provinces, whose authority extends to areas such as child welfare, education and policing. While “Indians” means all Indigenous peoples for the purpose of section 91(24),… Read More ›

Executive Summary – The Arctic: Environmental Issues

Reading Time: < 1 minute Disponible en français. Climate change, changes in biological diversity, and the accumulation of toxic substances are three main interrelated issues affecting the rapidly shifting Arctic environment. While these issues, with climate change as a dominant driver, are largely the result of human activities in distant southern regions, they have serious cultural, socio‑economic and health impacts on residents… Read More ›

Executive Summary – Bilingualism in Canada’s Court System: The Role of the Federal Government

Reading Time: 2 minutes Disponible en français. There are various rules governing the use of French and English within the Canadian judicial system. This Background Paper focuses on the federal government’s role in the matter, looking particularly at the issues relating to bilingualism within the Canadian court system. There are a number of different acts that govern the administration of justice in the two official… Read More ›