Executive Summary – The Evolution of Defence Procurement in Canada: A Hundred-Year History

(Disponible en français : Résumé – L’évolution de l’approvisionnement en matière de défense au Canada : une histoire centenaire) In Canada, defence procurement currently involves several federal departments and agencies, including the Department of National Defence; Public Services and Procurement Canada; Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada; and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. Each…

Executive Summary – Services for Indigenous People Living in Urban Areas

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Services destinés aux autochtones vivant en milieu urbain) Over the past 70 years, growing numbers of Indigenous people in Canada have moved to urban centres. Today, more than half of the Indigenous population live in urban areas. Indigenous people may move permanently or temporarily to the city to access…

Executive Summary – Defining and Enumerating Homelessness in Canada

(Disponible en français : Résumé – L’itinérance au Canada : définitions et recensements) In 2019, the Government of Canada implemented Reaching Home: Canada’s Homelessness Strategy, which replaced the Homelessness Partnering Strategy. A key goal of Reaching Home is to increase government and community understanding of homelessness by ensuring that communities have the information and tools…

Executive Summary – Official Languages in the Federal Public Service

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Les langues officielles dans la fonction publique fédérale) The purpose of the Official Languages Act (OLA) is to ensure respect for English and French as the official languages of Canada. Pursuant to the OLA and to regulations and current policies, federal institutions are guided by certain fundamental principles that help them…

Executive Summary – Canadian Citizenship: Practice and Policy

(Disponible en français : Résumé – La citoyenneté canadienne : pratiques et politiques) Canadian citizenship can be obtained through birth on Canadian soil, by descent through birth or adoption outside of Canada to a Canadian citizen, or through naturalization (the process by which citizenship is obtained by a foreign national). Requirements related to citizenship are…

Executive Summary – Distribution of Federal Revenues and Expenditures by Province

(Disponible en français : Résumé – La répartition des revenus et des dépenses du gouvernement fédéral par province) The federal government collects revenues and makes expenditures in all provinces. Per capita federal revenues and spending vary from province to province, depending on the economic and demographic conditions in each province. Sources of federal revenues include personal…

Executive Summary – Organic Agriculture in Canada

(Disponible en français : Résumé – L’agriculture biologique au Canada) In 2017, organic agriculture in Canada was a C$5.4 billion market. This model of agriculture emerged out of a collection of schools of thought and agrarian movements that opposed the industrialization of agriculture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In Canada, organic agriculture appeared in the 1950s, but it was not…