Visuals: Social affairs and population

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Housing Supply and Demand

This figure illustrates the impact of proposals that increase housing supply and demand by comparing the equilibrium prices and quantities before and after the implementation of the proposals. Housing supply is represented graphically as an upward-sloping curve with price on the vertical axis and quantity on the horizontal axis, depicting the positive relationship between the price and the quantity supplied. Housing demand is represented graphically as a downward-sloping curve, depicting the negative relationship between the price and the quantity demanded. The equilibrium price and quantity are determined by the intersection of the housing supply and demand curves, i.e., the price and quantity at which the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded are equal. The figure shows that a rightward shift in supply reduces the price of a home by $50,000 from $500,000 to $450,000, and it increases the quantity of homes by 1,000 homes, from 10,000 to 11,000 homes. A rightward shift in demand increases the price of a home by $50,000, from $500,000 to $550,000, and it increases the quantity of homes by 1,000 homes, from 10,000 to 11,000 homes. The figure also presents the main determinants of housing supply and demand between the illustration of a potential buyer and a home. The main determinants of housing supply are land and construction costs, geographical constraints such as oceans and mountains, and municipal land-use planning restrictions. The main determinants of demand are the buyers’ borrowing capacity, buyers’ income, employment, population growth and tax measures that increase the after-tax return of homeownership compared to other investments.

Read the HillNote: A Supply-and-Demand Perspective on Housing Affordability (2022)


Menstruation and its costs in Canada

This infographic illustrates the impacts of menstruation on Canadians who menstruate. Menstruation is a regular part of life for millions of Canadians, typically beginning between the ages of ten to fourteen years and ending at menopause around fifty years of age. Menstruators spend, on average, six years menstruating over the course of their lifetime. Menstruators use a median of thirteen menstrual products per cycle or around one hundred and sixty-nine disposable menstrual products per year. Canadians who menstruate spend up to six thousand dollars in their lifetimes on menstrual products. Canadians who live in more remote and northern communities can expect to pay twice as much for menstrual products as other Canadians. Reusable products, such as menstrual cups, cost less than disposable products over the lifetime of the products, and produce less waste.

Read the HillNote: Improving Access to Menstrual Products in Canada (2021)


Women in Parliament: Selected Highlights over 100 Years

This infographic illustrates some notable firsts for women in Canada’s Parliament over the past 100 years. Notable highlights include the first woman, Agnes Campbell Macphail, elected to the House of Commons in 1921. In addition, various firsts for women with intersecting identities in Parliament are shown, such as the appointment of the first Black person, the Honourable Anne C. Cools, to the Senate in 1984. The infographic also shows increased proportions of women represented in both chambers over time. Representation of women reached 5% in the Senate in 1953, and a similar percentage was attained in the House of Commons in 1980. In 2021, women’s representation in Parliament reached 49% in the Senate and 30% in the House of Commons.

Read the HillNote: Women in the Parliament of Canada: 100 Years of Representation (2021)


The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women

This infographic illustrates selected examples of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women at both the Canada-wide and global levels. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women is examined in three areas: the increase in unpaid care work, a responsibility that falls disproportionately on women compared to men; the high rate of employment loss, which was felt to a greater extent by women than men; and the increasing rate of burnout among health care workers, the majority of whom are women. Some notable statistics of the pandemic’s impact on women are as follows: in Canada, among parents providing support to their children with schoolwork during the pandemic, 64% were women; globally, employment loss during the pandemic (in 2020, compared to 2019) was 5% for women versus 3.9% for men; and the rate of severe burnout among health care workers in Canada rose from between 30% and 40% in spring 2020 to 60% in spring 2021.

Read the HillNote: Gender Considerations and the COVID-19 Pandemic (2022)


Overview of Refugee Protection Claims Process in Canada

As outlined in this paper, the refugee determination process in Canada begins with claim eligibility and applicant admissibility screening. Claims for refugee protection that are eligible to be heard proceed to a hearing. Some decisions are subject to judicial review, as discussed in this paper. If a claim for refugee protection is accepted, the applicant may apply for permanent residence. If the claim for refugee protection is rejected, the applicant can: be subject to a removal order and appeal that order to the Immigration Appeal Division; request a pre-removal risk assessment; or apply for permanent residence on humanitarian and compassionate grounds.

Read the Background Paper: Refugee Protection in Canada (2020)

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