Executive Summary – Organ Donation and Transplantation in Canada: Statistics, Trends and International Comparisons

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Don et greffe d’organes au Canada : Statistiques, tendances et comparaisons internationales) Efforts to improve Canada’s organ donation and transplantation system have increased over the last 20 years. However, despite a significant increase in the number of organ transplants conducted in Canada between 2009 and 2018, the supply of organs…

Executive Summary – Defence Procurement Organizations Worldwide: A Comparison

(Disponible en français : Résumé — Les organismes d’approvisionnement en matière de défense dans le monde : comparaison) In Canada, defence procurement is a complex process involving several federal departments and agencies, notably the Department of National Defence; Public Services and Procurement Canada; Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada; and the Treasury Board of Canada…

Executive Summary – Sport Canada and the Public Policy Framework for Participation and Excellence in Sport

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Sport Canada et l’encadrement public de la participation et de l’excellence sportives) This document provides an overview of the programs and initiatives implemented by Sport Canada. The Physical Activity and Sport Act (PASA) defines Canada’s objectives for sport, such as increasing participation in the practice of sport and supporting the…

Executive Summary – Climate Change: Impact and Policy Implications

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Les changements climatiques : Leurs répercussions et leur incidence sur les politiques) Unprecedented global warming has been observed in recent decades. Around the world, mean air and water temperatures have increased, amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea levels have risen. Canada is no exception: our mean…

Executive Summary – The World Trade Organization: Selected Challenges and Canada’s Priorities

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Organisation mondiale du commerce : Défis choisis et priorités du Canada) The World Trade Organization (WTO) is currently facing challenges relating to its executive, legislative, monitoring and adjudicative functions. As a founding member of the WTO, Canada has a number of reform proposals that are designed to address these…

Executive Summary – How Do Digital Multinationals Legally Avoid Tax in Canada?

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Comment les multinationales du numérique échappent-elles légalement à l’impôt au Canada?) According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), multinational enterprises are using increasingly aggressive practices to reduce the amount of tax they have to pay, and some of them are creating off-shore subsidiaries or shell companies.…

Executive Summary – Sanctions: The Canadian and International Architecture

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Sanctions : l’architecture canadienne et internationale) Sanctions are measures implemented by governments to restrict or prohibit certain types of interactions with a foreign state, individual or entity. Governments impose sanctions in pursuit of foreign policy objectives, most often in response to breaches of international peace and security, but also…

Executive Summary – Overview of Canada’s Long-term Infrastructure Plan

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Aperçu du plan d’infrastructure à long terme du Canada) Through the Investing in Canada plan, the Government of Canada has committed to providing more than $187 billion in infrastructure funding over 12 years, including through bilateral agreements with the provinces and territories. Infrastructure Canada is the government agency responsible for coordinating…