Executive Summary – The Arctic: Environmental Issues

Disponible en français. Climate change, changes in biological diversity, and the accumulation of toxic substances are three main interrelated issues affecting the rapidly shifting Arctic environment. While these issues, with climate change as a dominant driver, are largely the result of human activities in distant southern regions, they have serious cultural, socio‑economic and health impacts on residents of the Arctic, especially on many Indigenous peoples, as well as adverse effects on the wildlife of the region. Further action, both in Canada and…

Executive Summary – Recognition of the Foreign Qualifications of Immigrants

Disponible en français. Qualification recognition is the process of verifying that the knowledge, skills, work experience and education obtained in another country is comparable to the standards established for Canadian professionals and tradespersons. Far from simple, this process is different in each province and territory, and for each trade and profession. It is particularly challenging…

Executive Summary – Resettling Refugees: Canada’s Humanitarian Commitments

Disponible en français. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates that more than 1.44 million refugees are currently in need of resettlement to a third country. These are refugees who, according to the UNHCR, can neither return to their country of origin nor integrate into their country of first asylum. A total of…

Executive Summary – Bilingualism in Canada’s Court System: The Role of the Federal Government

Disponible en français. There are various rules governing the use of French and English within the Canadian judicial system. This Background Paper focuses on the federal government’s role in the matter, looking particularly at the issues relating to bilingualism within the Canadian court system. There are a number of different acts that govern the administration of justice in the two official languages, including the Constitution Act, 1867, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and Official Languages Act. In addition to these constitutional and legislative obligations, there are a number of other…

Executive Summary – Overview of the Canada–United States Safe Third Country Agreement

Disponible en français. Refugees are people who flee their countries because of a well-founded fear of persecution. Once refugees arrive in another country and seek asylum, international law protects them from being sent back to face serious threats. Of course, not all asylum claims are successful. Some asylum seekers may not meet the legal definition of…

Executive Summary – Canada’s Retirement Income System

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Le système de revenu de retraite du Canada) The purpose of Canada’s retirement income system is twofold: to alleviate poverty among seniors and to help seniors who are better off to avoid significant declines in living standards when they retire. This Background Paper outlines the different components of the system, who they target, how much they cost…

Executive Summary – The Evolution of Defence Procurement in Canada: A Hundred-Year History

(Disponible en français : Résumé – L’évolution de l’approvisionnement en matière de défense au Canada : une histoire centenaire) In Canada, defence procurement currently involves several federal departments and agencies, including the Department of National Defence; Public Services and Procurement Canada; Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada; and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. Each…