Executive Summary – Canada’s Retirement Income System

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Le système de revenu de retraite du Canada) The purpose of Canada’s retirement income system is twofold: to alleviate poverty among seniors and to help seniors who are better off to avoid significant declines in living standards when they retire. This Background Paper outlines the different components of the system, who they target, how much they cost…

Executive Summary – How Do Digital Multinationals Legally Avoid Tax in Canada?

(Disponible en français : Résumé – Comment les multinationales du numérique échappent-elles légalement à l’impôt au Canada?) According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), multinational enterprises are using increasingly aggressive practices to reduce the amount of tax they have to pay, and some of them are creating off-shore subsidiaries or shell companies.…

Tax-Free Savings Account

Personal Income Taxes in Canada: Revenue, Rates and Rationale

(Disponible en français : L’impôt des particuliers au Canada : recettes, taux et justification) Governments can finance the goods and services provided to citizens through various means, including through taxing, investing and borrowing. The first – taxation – can take several forms. In Canada, federally funded or federally sponsored initiatives can be financed by personal…