Visuals: Agriculture, environment, fisheries and natural resources

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Canada’s Crude Oil Production and Transportation Infrastructure, 2020

This map illustrates the main crude oil and mixed-use pipelines in Canada and the United States as well as the percent of total crude oil production by Canadian province. Alberta is in the category of greater than 80% of total production in Canada while British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Newfoundland and Labrador and are each in the category of less than 11%.

Read the HillNote: Market (dis)Connection in Canada’s Oil Sector (2022)



Deep Seabed Mining Operations

The image depicts an ocean ecosystem alongside a hydraulic mining system. Various marine species are depicted in the water column’s various vertical zones, which are: the sunlight zone (surface to 200 metres in depth), the twilight zone (200 metres to 1,000 metres), the midnight zone (1,000 metres to 4,000 metres) and the abyss (4,000 metres to 6,000 metres). Collector vehicles collecting polymetallic nodules are shown on the seabed along with a collector pipe that runs from the vehicles to a vessel on the surface. Collector and dewatering plumes along the water column are also shown.

Read the HillNote: Into the Depths: International Law and Deep Seabed Mining (2022)


The Mental Health of Canadian Farmers: An Overview

The infographic gives an overview of the mental health of Canadian farmers and certain factors that have an impact on their mental health. 57% of Canadian farmers surveyed had possible cases of anxiety. High levels of perceived stress affect 45% of farmers and 20.4% of the general population. Possible cases of depression affect 34% of farmers. 83.9% of farm operators live in rural areas. In rural areas, there is one psychologist for every 28,500 people compared to one psychologist for every 3,848 people in urban areas. 53.4% of rural households have access to high broadband Internet speeds compared to 89.5% of households for Canada as a whole.

Read the HillNote: The Mental Health of Canadian Farmers (2022)


Projected Increase in Global Average Temperature by 2100

This figure presents a thermometer that uses a colour gradient to depict the increasing severity of climate change impacts with each increment of warming above pre-industrial levels. The projected increase in global average temperature if all countries honour their emissions reduction pledges is 1.7 °C to 2.6 °C. The projected increase under current policies and actions is higher, at 2.0 °C to 3.6 °C.

Read the HillNote: COP26: Negotiating for 1.5 Degrees Celsius (2021)


Current and possible carbon pricing systems in Canada

Canada’s current federal carbon pricing system has two elements. The first is a fuel charge that is paid by consumers at the point when the fuel is used. The second is an output-based pricing system for industrial emitters. Facilities are measured against an emissions benchmark. Facilities pay for emissions above the benchmark and earn credits for emitting less than the benchmark. It is possible that Canada will adopt an additional system, called border carbon adjustments (BCAs). A BCA is a fee that would be charged on imported goods from countries that have less stringent climate change policies than Canada. A BCA helps set a level price for emissions, no matter where the good was made.

Read the HillNote: Border Carbon Adjustments (2021)


Canada’s Nuclear Industry at a Glance

This figure offers an overview of the impact of Canada’s nuclear industry on the economy, employment, power generation and greenhouse gas emissions. In 2017, the nuclear industry contributed $6 billion to Canada’s gross domestic product and accounted for 60,000 jobs, 30,000 of them direct and 30,000 indirect. In 2019, women and Indigenous peoples accounted for 16% and 3% of the workers in this industry, respectively. In the case of the uranium mining sector, 40% of jobs were held by Indigenous peoples in 2019. In 2017, Canada’s 19 nuclear reactors produced 15% of the country’s power. Canada produced 22% of the world’s uranium in 2017, making it the world’s second largest producer. A total of 87% of Canada’s uranium was exported in 2017. Lastly, nuclear energy is the second-lowest source of emissions in Canada behind hydroelectricity, and it displaces 50 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions.

Stages in the Multiple-Barrier System for the Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel

This figure presents the schematic of a deep geological repository and describes the stages in a multiple barrier system for the isolation and disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The barriers consist of the spent fuel pellet, which is about the size of a quarter; the fuel element, which looks like a half-metre-long rod and holds several fuel pellets; the fuel bundle, composed of several fuel elements; the used fuel container, into which a fuel bundle is inserted; bentonite clay, in which the used fuel container is placed; the placement room, located more than 500 metres below ground; and the geosphere, which forms a natural rock barrier. The main shaft complex and the ventilation exhaust shafts are also located underground.

Read the Background Paper: Nuclear Energy and Radioactive Waste Management in Canada (2020)


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