a judge's gavel and the Canadian flag in the background

Sentencing and the Administration of Sentences: Recent Developments (2011-2015)

Sentencing tools were much in the spotlight as the Canadian Government continued to promote law-and-order legislation during the 41st Parliament. New mandatory minimum sentences were among reforms to the sentencing regime introduced during the past four years. Other reforms included the enhancement of victim rights, the creation of specific offences and risk management measures, as…

Hands holding Canadian flags

The Evolution of Canadian Immigration Policy

Sandra Elgersma Julie Béchard Aboriginal Affairs and Social Development Each year, the federal government presents the “Immigration Levels Plan” which informs Parliament and the public about how many permanent immigrants are targeted for admission to Canada in the coming year. The target for 2015 totalled between 260,000 and 285,000 new immigrants, the highest planned level…

Picture of the Canadian mosaic

International Context for Refugee Protection

Sandra Elgersma Legal and Social Affairs Division More people than ever before have been displaced from their homes around the world as a result of persecution, conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has reported that, by the end of 2014, this population had reached an all-time…

Earth melting into water

Assessing Canada’s Environmental Performance

Penny Becklumb Tim Williams Resources and Environment Section The health of Canadians and their social and economic well-being are highly dependent on the quality of their environment. One way to assess environmental quality is to use indicators that convey complex information as easily understood measures. The Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators initiative, or CESI, is the…

currrencies (dollar and euro) circling the globe

21st Century Trade Agreements: From NAFTA to the TPP

Alexandre Gauthier Economic and Trade Policy Section Pascal Tremblay International Affairs section Given the size of its economy and relatively small population, Canada places considerable importance on international trade. It is not surprising that Canada has been negotiating bilateral and regional trade agreements in recent years, especially since members of the World Trade Organization were…

Labour market and precarity

Precarious Employment in Canada: An Overview of the Situation

Dominique Fleury Aboriginal Affairs and Social Development Recent studies have raised questions about the quality of jobs in Canada. These studies have also highlighted concerns regarding the impact of precarious employment on the well-being of workers and the general population. In a report published in 2015, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) noted a…