a judge's gavel and the Canadian flag in the background

Sentencing and the Administration of Sentences: Recent Developments (2011-2015)

(Disponible en français : La détermination et l’administration des peines au Canada : évolution récente (2011-2015)) Sentencing tools were much in the spotlight as the Canadian Government continued to promote law-and-order legislation during the 41st Parliament. New mandatory minimum sentences were among reforms to the sentencing regime introduced during the past four years. Other reforms…

Hands holding Canadian flags

The Evolution of Canadian Immigration Policy

(Disponible en français : L’évolution de la politique du Canada en matière d’immigration) Each year, the federal government presents the “Immigration Levels Plan” which informs Parliament and the public about how many permanent immigrants are targeted for admission to Canada in the coming year. The target for 2015 totalled between 260,000 and 285,000 new immigrants,…

Picture of the Canadian mosaic

International Context for Refugee Protection

(Disponible en français : Le contexte international de la protection des réfugiés) More people than ever before have been displaced from their homes around the world as a result of persecution, conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has reported that, by the end of 2014, this…

Earth melting into water

Assessing Canada’s Environmental Performance

Penny Becklumb Tim Williams Resources and Environment Section The health of Canadians and their social and economic well-being are highly dependent on the quality of their environment. One way to assess environmental quality is to use indicators that convey complex information as easily understood measures. The Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators initiative, or CESI, is the…

currrencies (dollar and euro) circling the globe

21st Century Trade Agreements: From NAFTA to the TPP

(Disponible en français : Accords commerciaux du 21e siècle : de l’Accord de libre-échange nord-américain au partenariat transpacifique) Given the size of its economy and relatively small population, Canada places considerable importance on international trade. It is not surprising that Canada has been negotiating bilateral and regional trade agreements in recent years, especially since members…

Peace Tower close-up of clock face with detail, Parliament of Canada

Public Infrastructure in Canada

(Disponible en français : L’infrastructure publique au Canada) Public infrastructure is vital to all Canadians, every day. Public infrastructure can include common-use structures, such as roads, airports and ports, as well as vehicles, for instance, those used for public transit and commercial air, rail, and marine transportation services. Other kinds of public infrastructure, such as…

Monument to aboriginal war veterans in Confederation Park, Ottawa, Canada

Indigenous Peoples: Terminology and Identity

(Disponible en français : Peuples autochtones : terminologie et identité) For centuries, the original inhabitants of North America have been largely defined by others, beginning with the misapplication of the term Indian by Christopher Columbus to describe the various peoples of the Americas. Today, as attitudes toward the first peoples of Canada change and evolve,…